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Chronology of Gypsy History (2)

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1958 Bulgaria: Nomadism banned. Czechoslovakia: Nomadism banned. Hungary: National Gypsy organization established.

1960 England and Wales: Caravan Sites Act reduces provision of caravan sites. France: Communauté Mondiale Gitane established.

German Federal Republic: Courts rule that Gypsies were persecuted for racial reasons. Norway: Government Gypsy Committee established.

Ireland: Report of the Commission on Itinerancy published. Italy: Opera Nomadi education scheme set up. Yugoslavia: Gypsies move to Shuto Orizari after Skopje earthquake.

Ireland: Itinerant Action Group set up.

France: Communauté Mondiale Gitane banned. Comité International Tzigane set up. Italy: Pope Paul VI addresses some 2,000 Gypsies at Pomezia.

United Kingdom: Gypsy Council set up.

Finland: National Gypsy Association established.

England and Wales: Caravan Sites Act: Councils to build sites. Holland: All districts must build caravan sites.

Bulgaria: Segregated schools are set up for Gypsies. Europe: Council of Europe Assembly passes a positive resolution on Gypsies. Yugoslavia, Macedonia: Abdi Faik elected a member of Parliament.

Norway: Report published on proposed work with the Gypsies. United Kingdom: National Gypsy Education Council established.

United Kingdom: First World Romany Congress held near London. Advisory Committee on the Travelling People starts work in Scotland.

Czechoslovakia: Sterilization program for Gypsies begins. France: Band known as Los Reyes (later the Gypsy Kings) founded. Sweden: Stockholm’s Finska Zigenarförening founded. United Kingdom: Romany Guild founded.

German Federal Republic: Three Gypsies shot by farmer in Pfaf-fenhofen. Scandinavia: Nordiska Zigenarrâdet set up to link organizations. YugoslaviaMacedonia: Radio broadcasts in Romani start from Tetovo.

1975 Europe: Council of Europe Committee of Ministers adopts a positive resolution on nomads. Hungary: The first issues of the magazine Rom som [I Am a Romany] appear.

Netherlands: Legalization of 500 “illegal” Gypsy immigrants. United Kingdom: Cripps Report on Gypsies published. United Nations: Subcommission passes resolution on protection of Gypsies.

Switzerland: Second World Romany Congress held in Geneva.

Hungary: National Gypsy Council formed. First national exhibition of self-taught Gypsy artists held. Norway: ABC Romani primer produced for mother-tongue teaching. Romania: St. John’s Gospel published underground in Romani. United Nations: International Romani Union recognized by the United Nations Economic and Social Council.

Yugoslavia: Romani grammar in Romani published in Skopje.

Europe: Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe resolution on helping nomads held. German Federal Republic: Third World Romany Congress in Göttingen held. Poland: Pogrom instigated in Oswiecim. Yugoslavia: Gypsies granted national status on an equal footing with other minorities.

France: New François Mitterrand government promises to help nomads.

Europe: Council of Ministers passes a resolution on stateless nomads. Italy: Gypsy caravans removed from Rome at the start of the Annus Sanctus.United Kingdom: First national Pentecostal convention held. Belfast Traveller Education Development Group established in Northern Ireland.YugoslaviaKosovo: Romani teaching begins in one school.

Europe: European Parliament passes a resolution on aiding Gypsies. India: Chandigarh Festival held.

France: First International Exhibition (Mondiale) of Gypsy Art held in Paris. Ireland: Report of the Travelling People Review Body published. Sweden: Gypsy family attacked in Kumla with stones and a firebomb.

France: International Gypsy conference held in Paris. Spain: Gypsy houses set on fire in Martos. YugoslaviaSarajevo: International Romany seminar held.

Hungary: Organization Phralipe founded.

Europe: Council of the Europe resolution on promoting school provision for Gypsy and Traveler children held. Germany: Government initiates the deportation of several thousand foreign Gypsies from the country. Gypsies demonstrate at the site of the concentration camp at Neuengamme against the deportation of asylum seekers. Hungary: Roma Parliament set up. Poland: First Romane Divesa Festival held. Romania: Border guards shoot party of Gypsies. Spain: Gypsy houses attacked in Andalusia.

Poland: Permanent exhibition on Romanies opens in Tarnow. Fourth World Romany Congress held near Warsaw; standard alphabet for Romani adopted by the Congress. Journal Rrom p-o Drom [Romanies on the Road] starts publication. Romania: Miners attack Romany quarter in Bucharest.Yugoslavia: Egyptian Associations formed in Kosovo and Macedonia.

Czech Republic: Romani teaching starts at Prague University. Italy: Ostia international conference held. Macedonia: Romanies have equal rights in new republic. Poland: Pogrom instigated in Mlawa. Slovakia: Government gives Romanies nationality status and equal rights. Ukraine: Police attack settlement of Velikie Beryezni.

Hungary: Arson attack occurs on Gypsies in Kétegyháza. Poland: Attack occurs on remaining Gypsies in Oswiecim. Slovakia: Romathan Theater established in Kosice. Ukraine: Mob attacks Gypsy houses in Tatarbunary. United Nations: Commission on Human Rights passes resolution on protection of Gypsies. Gypsies recognized as an ethnic group.

Bulgaria: A crowd of Bulgarians attacks the Gypsy quarter in Malorad, killing one Romany man. Czech Republic: Tibor Danihel drowns running away from skinhead gang. Seven Romanies deported from Ustí nad Labem to Slovakia. Europe: Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe Resolution on Gypsies held. Germany: First International Conference on Romani Linguistics held in Hamburg. Hungary: Gypsies recognized as a national minority. International Conference held in Budapest. Macedonia: Romani language officially introduced in schools. Romania: Three Gypsies killed in pogrom in Hadareni. Slovakia: Cyril Dunka beaten up by police after a parking incident. United Kingdom: Scottish Gypsy/Traveller Association set up. United Nations:

Romany Union upgraded to Category II consultative status.

France: Standing Conference of Romany Associations formed in Strasbourg. Hungary: Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe meeting sets up Contact Point for Roma and Sinti Issues in Budapest, based initially in Warsaw. Gypsies vote for their local Romany councils. Poland: Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights organizes Warsaw seminar on Romanies. Gypsy boy beaten up and houses inhabited by Romanies attacked in Debica. Spain: European Congress held in Seville. United Kingdom: Criminal Justice Act: Nomadism criminalized.

Austria: Four Roma killed by a bomb in Oberwart, Burgenland. Bulgaria: One Gypsy dies following an arson attack on a block of flats in Sofia. Angel Angelov shot by police in Nova Zagora. Czech Republic: Tibor Berki killed by skinheads in Zdár nad Sázavou. Europe: Council of Europe sets up specialist advice group on Romanies. Hungary: Second International Exhibition (Mondiale) of Gypsy Art held. International Romani Union organizes “Sarajevo” Peace Conference in Budapest. Gypsies attacked and injured in Kalocsa. Poland: Gypsy couple murdered in Pabianice. Grota Bridge settlement of Romanian Gypsies in Warsaw dispersed by police. Residents deported across the border to Ukraine. Slovakia: Mario Goral burned to death by skinheads in Ziar nad Hronom. Turkey: Zehala Baysal dies in police custody in Istanbul.

Albania: Fatmir Haxhiu dies of burns after a racist attack. Bulgaria: Kuncho Anguelov and Kiril Perkov, deserters from the army, shot and killed by military police. Three Romanies beaten by skinheads in Samokov. Czech Republic: Romany children banned from swimming pool in Kladno.Europe: European Court of Human Rights rejects the appeal by Mrs. Buckland against the refusal of planning permission in England for her caravan. First meeting of the Committee of Experts of the Council of Europe held. France: Second meeting of the Standing Committee of Gypsy Organizations in Strasbourg held. Greece: Police raid camp in Attica. Police officer shoots Anastasios Mouratis in Boetia. Hungary: European Roma Rights Center set up in Budapest. Ireland: National Strategy on Traveller Accommodation proposed. Poland: Houses occupied by Romanies attacked in Wiebodzice. Romania: Twenty-one Romany houses burned down in Curtea de Arges. Mircea-Muresul Mosor shot and killed by chief of police in Valcele. Serbia: Gypsies attacked in Kraljevo. Slovakia: Eighteen-year-old Romany youth beaten to death by skinheads in Poprad. Jozef Miklos dies when his house is set on fire in Zalistie. Spain: Romany Union’s second “Sarajevo” Peace Conference, in Gasteiz (Vittoria). Turkey: Five thousand evicted from Selamsiz quarter of Istanbul. Ukraine: “Mrs. H” raped by police in Mukacevo. Two brothers shot by police in Velikie Beryezni.

BulgariaFebruary-Killing of three Gypsies by police reported. Police attack the Gypsy quarter in Pazardjik. November– International conference on Gypsy children and their education held. Czech RepublicFebruary-Appeals court in Pilsen quashes acquittal of inn owner Ivo Blahout on a charge of discrimination. March– Four skinheads sentenced to prison in connection with the 1993 death of Tibor Danihel. August-Several hundred Romanies fly to Canada to seek asylum. Monument erected at Hodonin to concentration camp victims. FranceMarch-Jose Ménager and Manolito Meuche shot dead by police in Nantes. GreeceApril-One hundred families evicted from Ano Liosia. Partially resettled in a guarded camp. Hungary: February-Gypsies beaten up in Szombathely police station and in a police car in Mandatany in separate incidents. May-Fifth annual International Conference on Culture held in Budapest. NorwayNovember-In Bergen, Ian Hancock receives Thorolf Rafto Prize on behalf of the Romany people.PolandJune-Romanies attacked in Wiebodzice. RomaniaJanuary-Mob attacks Gypsy houses in Tan-ganu village. SpainNovember-European Congress of Gypsy Youth held in Barcelona. TurkeyJanuary-Mob attacks Gypsies in Sulukule district of Istanbul. UkraineJanuary-Gypsies beaten by police in four separate incidents in Uzhorod. United KingdomNovember-National Front demonstrates in Dover against asylum seekers from the Czech and Slovak republics.

BulgariaNovember-Prince Charles of Britain visits Stolipino, Romany quarter of Plovdiv. Czech Republic: 4 -6 September –

International Romany cultural festival RESPECT held in Prague.

December-International Conference on the Roma at Castle Stirin. United Kingdom: 16 May -Music festival in London with Czech and Polish Gypsy bands composed of asylum seekers. October-Home Secretary Jack Straw introduces visas for Slovak citizens to keep out asylum seekers. 19 October -In Wales, Cardiff County Council organizes a Gypsy and Traveller Awareness Day. United States: New Jersey governor Christine Whitman signs Assembly Bill 2654, which rescinds the last anti-Gypsy law of any U.S. state. December-International Romani Union delegation, led by Rajko Djuric, attends Nazi Gold Conference on Holocaust assets in Washington.

BulgariaJune-Sofia Conference on Peace and Security held for Roma in the Balkans. Czech RepublicJanuary-More than 100 prominent persons sign protest to government over locating of pig farm on concentration camp site. France: Loi Besson encourages the provision of council-run caravan sites. GreeceFebruary– Local authority sets fire to five Roma houses in Aspropyrgos to construct Olympic sports facilities. MacedoniaSeptember– Government admits 500 Roma refugees from Kosovo held for a week at the border. RomaniaDecember-International Conference on Public Policies and Romany Women held in Bucharest. TurkeyNovember – Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe Istanbul Conference welcomes the development of the Romany civil rights movement.

RomaniaJanuary-Doctors of the World colloquium on Gypsies in Europe held in Bucharest. Czech RepublicJuly-Fifth World Romany Congress held in Prague. Finland: Publication of St. Luke’s Gospel in Romani. GermanyMay-Conference on “Die unerwün-schte Deutschen” (“The Unwanted Germans”) held in Stuttgart. Poland: International Romani Union and Romany National Congress sign joint declaration in Warsaw. VaticanMarch-Pope John Paul II asks forgiveness for the mistreatment of Gypsies by Catholics. United KingdomSeptember-A thousand police block access to the traditional Horsmonden Fair.

GermanyNovember-Romany writers meet in Cologne and agree to set up an international association. IndiaApril-International Romani Union leaders visit the Romano Kher (Nehru House) in Chandigarh. ItalyNovember-Two hundred members of the National

Alliance march to protest new Roma housing in Rome. MacedoniaJanuary-Magazine Roma Times begins publication. PolandAugust – Permanent Romany Holocaust exhibition opened at Auschwitz. RussiaJuly-Thirty skinheads attack a Gypsy camp in Volgograd, killing two adults.SerbiaJuly-Anti-Roma graffiti appear in Panchevo and Surdulica. South Africa: Roma attend the World Conference against Racism, held in Durban.

CroatiaSeptember-One hundred Croat parents prevent Roma children from entering a newly integrated school in the village of Drzimurec-Strelec.FinlandDrabibosko liin, the first ABC reader for Gypsies in Finland, published. July: International Romani Writers Association founded in Helsinki.FranceOctober-Delegation representing a dozen Gypsy organizations meets minister of the interior to discuss slow process of caravan site provision. HungaryJune-A Rom-Laszlo Teleki-appointed as the state secretary for Roma affairs. IrelandMarch-Housing Act criminalizes trespass by caravans. July-Traveller Movement pickets the Dail (Parliament) opposing the new Housing Act. PolandMay-Romany National Congress organizes an alternative International Romany Congress in Lodz. United KingdomNovember-Exhibition held of Gypsy children’s photos at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

CroatiaOctober-Ms. Mukic, deputy ombudsman, criticized for condemning segregation in schools. HungaryJune-World Bank sponsors international conference on Roma in eastern Europe in Budapest. Ireland: Internal Security Bill proposes fines of 3,750 euros for Travelers who trespass. SwitzerlandAugust-British Gypsies protest against UK policy at a UN conference in Geneva. United Kingdom: Fifteen-year old Irish Traveler Johnny Delaney killed in a racist attack in Liverpool. 5 November -Villagers in Sussex burn caravan and effigies of Gypsies.

France: 16 December -Council of Europe and the European Roma and Travellers Forum sign a partnership agreement in Strasbourg. Greece: More Gypsy settlements are cleared away near the Olympic Games venues in Athens. SpainNovember-Gypsy organizations hire Saatchi and Saatchi to mount a campaign to change public attitudes toward Gypsies. United States: 8 November -Sen. Hillary Clinton presents the keynote address at the conference Plight of the Roma, held at Columbia University.

2005 Austria: 4 February -President Heinz Fischer attends a memorial ceremony for the four Roma killed in 1995. Bulgaria: 31 August – Authorities destroy 25 Roma houses in the Hristo Botev district of Sofia. Europe: 28 April -European Parliament adopts a resolution on Roma rights. 17 May -European Court of Human Rights opens the case against discrimination in the city of Ostrava, Slovakia. FinlandSeptember-International Romany Music Festival held in Porvoo. German: 12 September -International An-tiziganismus Conference held in Hamburg. Norway: 27 April – Gypsies take part in demonstration outside the Parliament in Oslo stressing need for education. RussiaJanuary-Four hundred Roma leave the town of Iskitim after a pogrom. Slovakia: 17 March – United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination rules that Slovakia’s housing policies violate international law. Spain: 13 September -The flamenco musical Los Tarantos (based on Romeo and Juliet) opens in Madrid. United Kingdom: May– Sylvia Dunn stands for Parliament from Folkestone against Conservative Party leader Michael Howard. 25 July -Government announces £8 million fund for new and refurbished caravan sites. October-A Scottish parliamentary committee criticizes the government for not improving the quality of life of Gypsy and Traveler families.

Source: Historical dictionary of the Gypsies. Donald Kenrick.

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