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EuropeTekano ea bolumeli mesebetsing: Europe e lebile hokae?

Tekano ea bolumeli mesebetsing: Europe e lebile hokae?

TLHOKOMELISO: Lintlha le maikutlo a hlahisitsoeng lingolong ke tsa ba li bolelang mme ke boikarabello ba bona. Phatlalatso ho The European Times ha ho bolele feela ho tšehetsa maikutlo, empa ho bolela tokelo ea ho e hlahisa.

LIPHETOLELO TSA TLHOKOMELISO: Lingoliloeng tsohle sebakeng sena sa marang-rang li hatisitsoe ka Senyesemane. Liphetolelo tse fetoletsoeng li etsoa ka mokhoa o ikemetseng o tsejoang e le liphetolelo tsa neural. Haeba u na le pelaelo, kamehla sheba sehlooho sa pele. Kea leboha ha u utloisisa.

Santiago Cañamares Arribas
Santiago Cañamares Arribashttps://www.ucm.es/directorio?id=9633
Santiago Cañamares Arribas ke Moprofesa oa Molao le Bolumeli, Univesithi ea Complutense (Spain). Ke Mongoli oa Boto ea Baphatlalatsi ea Revista General de Derecho Canónico y Eclesiástico del Estado, nako ea pele ea inthanete ka bokhabane ba hae, le setho sa Boto ea Bahlophisi ea koranta ea "Derecho y Religión". Ke setho se tsamaisanang le sona sa Royal Academy of Jurisprudence and Legislation. Ke eena mongoli oa likhatiso tse ngata tsa mahlale, ho kenyeletsoa le mengolo e mene ea litaba tsa morao-rao ka boits'oaro ba hae: Igualdad religiosa en las relaciones laborales, Ed. Aranzadi (2018). El matrimonio homosexual en Derecho español y comparado, Ed. Iustel (2007). Libertad religiosa, simbología y laicidad del Estado, Ed. Aranzadi (2005) El matrimonio canónico en la jurisprudencia civil, Ed. Aranzadi (2002). O boetse o hatisitse lingoloa tse ngata likoranteng tse tumileng tsa molao, Spain le kantle ho naha. Har'a tsa morao-rao, ho bohlokoa ho bua ka: Ecclesiastical Law Journal, Univesithi ea Cambridge, Religion & Human Rights. An International Journal, Journal of Church & State, Sri Lanka Journal of International Law, Oxford Journal of Law and Religion le Annuaire Droit et Religion, har'a ba bang. O entse lipatlisiso tsa ho lula liunivesithing tsa kantle ho naha, ho kenyeletsoa Univesithi ea K'hatholike ea Amerika e Washington (USA) le Univesithi ea Bopapa ea Holy Cross e Roma. O ile a fumana thuso ho Banco Santander Young Researchers Programme ho etsa lipatlisiso tsa ho lula Univesithing ea Montevideo le Rephabliki ea Uruguay (2014). O kentse letsoho mererong ea lipatlisiso e tšehelitsoeng ka lichelete ke Komisi ea Europe, Lekala la Saense le Boqapi, Sechaba sa Madrid le Univesithi ea Complutense. Ke setho sa mekhatlo e mengata ea machaba lefapheng la litsebo tsa hae tse khethehileng tse kang Latin American Consortium for Religious Freedom, Mokhatlo oa Sepanishe oa Li-Canonists le ICLARS (International Consortium for Law and Religion Studies).

Lilemong tse fetang mashome a mabeli tse fetileng, European Union e ile ea itlama ho sireletsa tekano ea basebetsi ka ho amohela Directive 2000/78 ea 27 November 2000, e thibelang khethollo e tobileng le e sa tobang ka mabaka a mangata, ho kenyeletsa le bolumeli. Leha ho le joalo, ke habohlokoa ho hlakisa hore khethollo e tobileng ke khethollo e mpe le e atileng - ho leleka motho e mong ka lebaka la morabe oa hae, bolumeli, kapa tumelo ea hae, joalo-joalo. Ka lehlakoreng le leng, khethollo e sa tobang ke e poteletseng, e amahanngoang le boemo boo basebetsi ba bang ba bo utloang ha ho etsoa tokisetso e molaong ea khoebo. e ba hlokisa menyetla ka lebaka la bolumeli ba bona kapa tšobotsi efe kapa efe ea botho.

Lekhotla la Toka la European Union le sa tsoa etsa qeto ea kahlolo ea Wabe & MH Müller Handels ea 15 July 2021 mabapi le khethollo ea bolumeli khahlanong le basebetsi, ho theha thuto e batlang e hanyetsana. Ka lehlakoreng le leng, e etsa tšireletso e khōloanyane khahlanong le maemo a khethollo e sa tobang. Leha ho le joalo, ka lehlakoreng le leng, e bontša lipelaelo tse itseng mabapi le boteng ba bolumeli mosebetsing.

Lekhotla le ne le se le hlokometse kahlolong ea Achbita (2017) hore lik'hamphani li na le tokelo ea ho amohela melao ea ho se nke lehlakore le haeba li khetholla basebetsi ba bang ka lebaka la bolumeli ka ho ba thibela ho phethahatsa litlamo tse itseng tse kang ho apara liaparo tsa bolumeli. Leha ho le joalo, Lekhotla le ile la utloisisa hore ba amehileng ba tlameha ho itokolla mosebetsing ha leano la ho se nke lehlakore le arabela molemong oa khoebo o nepahetseng 'me le loketse ebile lea hlokahala (ke hore, le sebelisoa ka mokhoa o sa fetoheng ho tsona kaofela), le ama mefuta eohle ea lipontšo - lipolotiki, maikutlo, bolumeli, joalo-joalo - 'me ha e feteletse ho fihlela sepheo sa eona.

Kahlolo ea Wabe e matlafatsa tšireletso ea basebetsi ka ho phaella ka hore ha hoa lekana hore mohiri a bolele hore ho na le leano la ho se nke lehlakore ho lokafatsa khethollo e sa tobang ka lebaka la bolumeli, empa o tlameha ho paka hore leano le joalo le kopana le morero oa khoebo. tlhokeho. Ka mantsoe a mang, haeba a batla ho thibela liaparo tsa bolumeli, o tla tlameha ho paka hore ho seng joalo khoebo e ka senyeha haholo.

Matlafatso ea bobeli ke hore Lekhotla le lumella linaha tseo e leng litho ho eketsa tšireletso ea Directive khahlanong le khethollo e sa tobang ka ho sebelisa melao ea naha ea naha ea tokoloho ea bolumeli moo ba nang le litokisetso tse molemo haholoanyane. Ka tsela ena, linaha tsa EU li lumeletsoe ho laela hore bahiri ba tsona ba etse hore melao-motheo ea bona ea ho se nke lehlakore e lumellane ka hohle kamoo ho ka khonehang le tokoloho ea bolumeli ea bahiruoa ba bona, e ba lumellang ho phethahatsa boitlamo ba bona ba bolumeli ntle leha ba baka mathata a sa hlokahaleng.

Ka mokhoa o makatsang, kahlolo ea Wabe e ea hanyetsana ka hore, leha e tšehetsa tekano ea bolumeli ea basebetsi, e nyenyefatsa tse ling tsa litiisetso tsa eona.

Joalo ka ha ke boletse kaholimo, Directive e amohela hore tlas'a maemo a itseng, basebetsi ba tlameha ho itokolla mosebetsing hore ba utloe bohloko ka lebaka la ts'ebetso e nepahetseng ea khoebo ha feela e lekana, ke hore, e sa ba lematse ho feta kamoo ho hlokahalang ka teng.

Lekhotla, le hlokomoloha tokisetso ena, le nka hore mohiri, le haeba a nka hore ho lekane hore setšoantšo sa hae sa sechaba se thibele matšoao a maholo le a totobetseng, o tlamehile ho thibela kaofela (esita le tse nyenyane le tse masene), kaha ho seng joalo, o tlamehile ho li thibela. e ne e tla be e le ho khetholla ka ho toba basebetsi ba tlamehang ho roala matšoao a bonahalang.

Khang ena e hanana le thuto e thehiloeng ho Achbita, e ileng ea etsa qeto ea hore, thibelo e amang matšoao a bolumeli, ha e hlahise boemo ba khethollo e tobileng ha e sebelisoa ka mokhoa o sa khetheng ho basebetsi bohle, 'me e akaretsa matšoao leha e le afe ho sa tsotellehe hore na ke tsa lipolotiki, tsa bolumeli kapa tsa mofuta ofe. . Ho sebelisa mabaka a tšoanang, thibelo ea tšebeliso ea matšoao a totobetseng - ho sa tsotellehe hore na ke tsa mofuta ofe - e ke ke ea khetholla ka ho toba basebetsi ba e sebelisang, hafeela e sebetsa kamehla ho basebetsi bohle.

Ke lumela hore, haholo-holo, Lekhotla le bontša qetong ena ho se tšepe bolumeli ho itseng mosebetsing, ka hore ho bonahala ho fana ka maikutlo a hore tsela e molemohali ea ho qoba likhohlano pakeng tsa basebetsi le bareki ke ho felisa ponahalo leha e le efe ea bolumeli. Ho feta moo, sena ke tlhahlobo e fosahetseng ho latela pono ea tokoloho ea likhoebo, ho latela hore na ke bahiri feela ba etsang qeto ea hore na ba batla ho etsa setšoantšo sefe sa khoebo ea bona le ho nka khato ka tsela e nepahetseng, ba khona ho sebelisa leano la ho se nke lehlakore. ho utloisisoa e le ho se be teng ha pontšo leha e le efe ea bolumeli kapa e le pontšo ea mefuta-futa, ke hore, ho amohela lipontšo tsohle ntle le liqoso kapa lithibelo.

Ka bokhutšoanyane, qeto ena e bontša hore, le hoja ho entsoe tsoelo-pele e khōlō, ho sa ntse ho e-na le tsela e telele ea ho etsa hore tekano le tokoloho ea bolumeli mosebetsing e be ntho ea sebele le e sebetsang kontinenteng ea khale.

Santiago Cañamares Moprofesa oa Molao le Bolumeli, Univesithi ea Complutense (Spain)

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